With the Version 0.0.132 I have this problem too:
But after reload the problem disappear and it happens very seldom ...
The solution further up the topic is still relevant.
If you enable email digest, when you get the digest it looks like this:
If someone has posted an image to a topic
Can you make it so it does not email that gibberish ?
Do you have
nodebb-plugin-markdown enabled on the forum?
Yes, I think it was enabled by default when I installed NodeBB:
A Markdown parser for NodeBB
Installed 8.9.2 | Latest 8.9.2