I'm not an expert in NodeBB or Meteor, but I am well versed in the space in between and explored both.
NodeBB and Meteor are built on completely different principles. Meteor is heavily front end driven, while NodeBB is heavily back end driven.
Meteor handles templating on the front end and uses a server/cloud mostly just for API calls to get the info it needs to serve.
It is doable thanks to the NodeBB API for a Meteor App to get what it needs from a NodeBB server, however the rest of the application would have to almost be built from the ground up to accommodate the differences in interaction. At that point, it would be less of a NodeBB Forum software and a NodeBB Server with a Meteor app attached.